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Any application for credit should be taken as a serious matter. Simply applying and allowing the lender to pull your credit report has an impact on your credit score, so it’s not a good idea to apply for things on a whim. But mortgage applications tend to be more serious than most other apps because they’re for such large amounts of money and longer terms.
When you’re borrowing hundreds of thousands of dollars for 15 to 30 years, the lender wants to ensure you’re a sound investment. They actually have an obligation to their shareholders, employees and other customers to try to take on mortgage accounts that are likely to result in a return instead of a loss.
For these reasons, you usually have to show up to the mortgage application process with a lot of documentation. Here’s a rundown of the documents needed for a mortgage application.
The first document is the mortgage application itself. Whether you complete it online or as a physical piece of paper at a broker’s office or bank, this is the document that launches the process.
Typically, mortgage applications require the same type of information. That includes:
- What type of loan you want. You may need to check or click boxes to indicate whether you want a conventional loan, VA loan, FHA loan or other type of loan.
- Why you need the loan. Is it a refinance or new purchase, and are you purchasing a single-unit home you plan to live in, a rental property or a business property?
- The property itself. You must fill in the address and some other basic information about the property you want to buy.
- Demographic information about the person or people borrowing the money, including name, address, phone number and Social Security number.
- Employment history for all borrowers.
- Income and assets for all borrowers.
- Debts and other liabilities for all borrowers.
You’ll also need to sign various agreements and disclosures. That includes whether you have a bankruptcy or other issue in your financial history and an agreement that the creditor can pull your reports.
You can’t just list items like assets on your mortgage application, though. You also have to prove your statements with documents. Documents that prove your assets can include bank statements showing current cash balances, investment statements showing current values and life insurance policies. If you’re including gift funds in your assets, you’ll need letters or other documents demonstrating where the money came from.
Debts and Expenses
Most of the time, the mortgage company can see evidence of your debts and expenses on your credit report. If the underwriter has any questions or concerns during the approval process, they may reach out for additional information such as copies of credit card statements. This is especially true if you’ve recently paid down debt and that isn’t yet reflected on your credit report.
When it comes to debts, one of the major concerns is your debt-to-income ratio. If it’s too high, the lender is less likely to approve you. Calculate this ratio by adding up all your monthly debt payments along with the estimated mortgage payment and dividing it by your total monthly income.
For example, if you have a car payment of $400, credit card bills with monthly minimums of $200 and student loans of $500 a month, that’s $1,100 in debt. Add a $1,500 mortgage and you would have $2,600 in debt. If you make $7,000 a month, your debt-to-income ratio is 37 percent.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau notes that the preferred debt-to-income ratio for mortgage approval is 43 percent or less. This is because you can’t use all your income up on debt—you still need money for utilities, food, fuel, savings and other critical expenditures.
Income and Employment Verification
You do have to prove the income amounts you put on a mortgage application. Common ways of doing so are summarized below.
Tax returns from the past few years can demonstrate that you make a certain amount per year and have done so consistently. If you’re planning to apply for a mortgage soon and don’t have copies of your tax returns, consider proactively ordering a free transcript from the IRS.
W-2s and Pay Stubs
Copies of W-2 forms or a handful of pay stubs from your employer are also good ways to demonstrate your income. Start saving your paycheck stubs if you think you’ll apply for a mortgage soon.
Additional Information (Self-Employed)
If you’re self-employed or have forms of income that aren’t from an employer, you’ll need documentation. Some options can include statements from checking accounts or payment systems that show money you received. You could also provide a profit and loss statement if you’re self-employed.
While the lender can get most of what they need from your credit report, you may need to be available to answer questions. Specifically, be ready to explain any negative items on the report. It’s a good idea to get a copy of your credit report for yourself before you apply for a mortgage so you know what might come up.
- Photo IDs, such as a driver’s license or passport
- Your rental history if you don’t already own a home, especially if you want to use it as demonstration of your payment history
- Divorce records to prove that certain debts are no longer yours or that you don’t have access to funds from a previous spouse
- Foreclosure or bankruptcy records, if applicable
- Documentation of residency status if you’re applying as a noncitizen
Who Do You Give These Documents to?
You give the documents as requested to a mortgage broker you’re working with or to an underwriter with the mortgage company. You might be asked more than once for some documents, especially if you go through a preapproval process.
During preapproval, the mortgage company evaluates you as a borrower in general and lets you know what amount, terms and interest you can qualify for. Once you move to buy a home, the mortgage must go through a final approval process, and someone may need to look at your documents again or request additional documents.
Start Preparing for a Mortgage Early
A lender might ask for documents and require that you respond in a certain amount of time or it will deny the application automatically. So, you don’t want to get caught searching for documents during the process. Prepare for a mortgage app early by gathering everything that you anticipate that you might need. Another way to boost your chances for mortgage approval is to check your credit and resolve any negative items you can.
You might also be able to take actions to positively impact your credit before you apply for a mortgage—especially if your report has mistakes on it. If you want to repair your credit before making a big financial move, contact Lexington Law to find out how we can help.
Reviewed by John Heath, Directing Attorney of Lexington Law Firm. Written by Lexington Law.
Born and raised in Salt Lake City, John Heath earned his BA from the University of Utah and his Juris Doctor from Ohio Northern University. John has been the Directing Attorney of Lexington Law Firm since 2004. The firm focuses primarily on consumer credit report repair, but also practices family law, criminal law, general consumer litigation and collection defense on behalf of consumer debtors. John is admitted to practice law in Utah, Colorado, Washington D. C., Georgia, Texas and New York.
Note: Articles have only been reviewed by the indicated attorney, not written by them. The information provided on this website does not, and is not intended to, act as legal, financial or credit advice; instead, it is for general informational purposes only. Use of, and access to, this website or any of the links or resources contained within the site do not create an attorney-client or fiduciary relationship between the reader, user, or browser and website owner, authors, reviewers, contributors, contributing firms, or their respective agents or employers.